Information and communications technologies (ICT) are the engine of innovation. They are the foundation of the transformative innovations from the last four decades.

  • 1970s – The arrival of computers and robots in large businesses automated previously manual procedures.
  • 1980s – The large-scale introduction of personal computers brought about the democratization of technologies, the generalization of bureaucratic tools, and the digitalization and transformation of business procedures. ICT influenced organizational innovation.
  •  1990s – The arrival of the internet and Web 1.0 encouraged the globalization of the computer network and the standardization of transactional interfaces. The spread of connections brought about a wave of innovations.
  •  2000s – The decade of Web 2.0, interactivity and individualization. Connectivity between people and objects, portability and omnipresence brought about the reduction in transaction costs, the transformation of value chains and the increase in informational benefits.


A successful company must be innovative. As a survey on ICT-driven innovation done in 2010 by the CEFRIO shows, the more intensely a company uses ICT, the more innovative it is:

“The intensity of ICT use provides a barometer of the pervasiveness of technologies in a business and the extent to which they are put to sustained use. This variable has a strong impact on innovation. As to ICTs, it is worth noting that no particular type of technology drives innovation, but rather ICT-use intensity in general. Therefore, it must be understood that there exists a broad array of ICTs, and that it is the overall quality of the ICT infrastructure and the intensity with which it is used, rather than any specific technology, that matter. When overall ICT-use intensity in a business is high, innovation increases.”